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The following link provides a variety of factors that may influence the results and therefore the test reliability. These tests are suitable for active individuals but not for those where the test would be contraindicated. Test reliability refers to the degree to which a test is consistent and stable in measuring what it is intended to measure.

Reliability will depend upon how strict the test is conducted and the individual's level of motivation to perform the test. Test validity refers to the degree to which the test actually measures what it claims to measure and the extent to which inferences, conclusions, and decisions made on the basis of test scores are appropriate and meaningful.

This test provides a means to monitor the effect of training on the athlete's physical development. The athlete warms up for 10 minutes and then removes their shoes The assistant secures the ruler to the box top with the tape so that the front edge of the box lines up with the zero mark on the ruler and the zero end of the ruler points towards the athlete The athlete sits on the floor with their legs fully extended with the bottom of their bare feet against the box The athlete places one hand on top of the other, slowly bends forward and reaches along the top of the ruler as far as possible holding the stretch for two seconds The assistant records the distance reached by the athlete's fingertips The athlete performs the test three times The assistant calculates and records the average of the three distances and uses this value to assess the athlete's performance.

Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing. Research Quarterly. Physical therapy , 74 9 , p.

Static Flexibility Test - Hip and Trunk Testing and measurement are the means of collecting information upon which subsequent performance evaluations and decisions are made but, in the analysis, we need to bear in mind the factors that may influence the results. Glycogen stores will have depleted as they were used during the match, so they must be restored as well. Protein must also be included in the post-match meals as they are needed to repair muscle tears. Protein intake is especially important during a tournament because the muscles need to be repaired enough in time for the next game.

Below is a rough guide outlining the foods and liquids a tennis player should consume in their post-match recovery. Chop Chop Salad A post-workout meal designed to replenish muscle-building protein and pack in nutrients from vegetables without adding excess calories. The fish in sushi is rich in omega-3 and the seaweed that some sushi is wrapped in is rich in iodine. He also drinks six litres of water every day. Since quitting gluten, his breathing and his game have subsequently got better. Dressing : 2 tbsp balsamic vinegar 1 tbsp Dijon mustard 1 tsp honey 2 tbsp extra-virgin olive oil Sea salt, to taste.

The diets of athletes will vary to meet their own individual needs, but all of them will ensure that they consume the necessary nutrients their bodies need to compete at a high level. Due to the intense training programs that the athletes follow, it is likely that they be injured at some point in their career.


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Tennis is a sport that requires movement from multiple different muscle groups which means it is possible to injure many different areas. The most common injuries for a tennis player are shoulder sprains, back pain, tennis elbow, calf strains and ankle sprains. Having the proper technique is essential in performance and it will also decrease the likelihood of the athlete getting injured.

A tennis player that puts a lot of focus on technique is Roger Federer, and because of this he is not only one of the best players in the world, but has also avoided many injuries. Nadal on the other hand, is much stronger and faster compared to Federer but his way of playing tennis has been much harder on his body, which has resulted in more injuries. Both the Australian and US Opens are played on hard courts, the French is played on clay, and the Wimbledon is played on grass. The surface of hard courts is either synthetic or acrylic layers of material that are placed on concrete or asphalt.

Due to the low absorption, the ball tends to bounce higher which allows players to put different types of spin on the ball. However, there are disadvantages when playing on hard courts. With little absorption the impact is much greater on the players, especially on their knees and ankles. Former World Nr. Grass courts also tend to be quite slippery, which makes the ball skid and not bounce very high. The bad bounces occur more on grass courts because although the courts are constantly mowed and watered, there will be patches that are uneven, which can result in weird bounces. Clay courts are the slowest courts to play on.

This means that the players must have enough endurance to be able to maintain their performance for each point. Clay courts also allow quite a bit of sliding. The extra sliding has its advantages and disadvantages; the advantage is that it allows players to decelerate instead of coming to an abrupt stop which occurs on hard courts. This makes it easier on their joints and muscles. As it was mentioned above, rallies are longer on clay courts but the resting time period between points is the same. This means that the players need to have good endurance to survive the long rallies, and Nadal has that.

His VO2 max is 85, which is very high. Rafa is also a very strong player, and on clay the friction on the court is much less compared to hard or grass courts which allows him to get his body in the right position faster to hit the ball at his opponent. As there is also less friction on clay courts, there is more sliding. This puts a lot less pressure on his body compared to hard courts which is good as he has chronic knee problems-this will be discussed in detail later on. Nadal is also naturally right handed, but he plays left.

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His style of play has brought him a lot of success, but he has suffered from several injuries. The knee injuries first began in , where it was determined that he had tendinitis in his left knee. Tendinitis is where the tendon is inflamed and irritated, commonly due to overuse.

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The best way to recover is rest, so Nadal took 10 weeks off in to try and recover from this injury. Piers Newbery, When he tried to come back in he managed to get all the way to the semi-finals of the Australian Open in January , but then he had more problems with his other knee and had to withdraw from a quarterfinal against Murray.

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After giving his knees some more time to recover, he was quite successful for the rest of the season as he won the three other Grand Slams. He recovered quite nicely from this injury as he won the French Open later that year and was runner up in the other two Slams. Juan Jose Vallejo, In he made it through the Australian Open where he came second and the French Open where he came first with little problems, but by July his knee was causing him pain again.

July 14 he pulled out of an exhibition match against Novak Djokovic, and then on July 19 he pulled out of the Summer Olympics. What can happen over time is some degeneration of the tendon, known as a tendinopathy. That rope can fray because, in a sport like tennis, you have quite high stress through the tendon as you stop and start very suddenly. The tendon needed time to repair, and so Nadal withdrew from the next Grand Slam which was the US Open in August and stayed off of his knee for a few months.

During his recovery period he gradually added physiotherapy and hydrotherapy.


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  4. The physiotherapy component consisted of treatment, stretches and exercises to maintain a certain degree of strength and mobility without further aggravating the injury. Hydrotherapy is where the athlete performs certain movements and exercises in a pool. This type of treatment works particularly well because the athlete can do a lot more exercises than they would be able to do on land because there is much less pressure being put on the injured area.

    Nadal also received stem cell treatment. By November 20 th Nadal was back on the court, slowly making his way back to playing. By then over four months had passed since he withdrew in July, and his knee was progressing quite well. Nadal finally returned to the court after a seven month recovery period.

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    In he was in the final at the Australian Open when he strained his back during warm up. He managed to play through the pain however it affected his performance and he ended up losing in four sets. Having this injury occur only a year after his knee injuries was not a good sign for Nadal.

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    However by the end of July he suffered from a wrist injury. He had originally planned on making it to New York for the Open however he ended up having to withdraw from the event. By September Nadal had recovered enough from his wrist injury and was playing in the China Open.

    He was getting better and back into his routine when he faced appendicitis in October. After the removal of his appendix, Nadal had further stem cell treatment done to his back. He had this done previously to his knees, and it had worked well for them, so they were going to follow a similar procedure in hopes to help his back problems. During the Australian Open Nadal had still not regained his top performance level and lost in the quarterfinal. The most recent tournaments have all been on clay leading up to the French Open , and normally Nadal dominates them.

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    However, this year Nadal has not been as successful, losing 5 of the 6 tournaments. Now he is getting ready to compete in the French Open, and he has never entered the tournament with so few clay tournament wins. Every feeling is different. He has often had to withdraw from tournaments and pull out of games due to injury, but he has always found a way to come back and be successful.

    Arias is right, Nadal is not the most strategic or technical player, compared to someone like Federer, but he is often able to outrun his opponents and will return a ball that he had no business returning. This comes from incredible athleticism, but it also comes from mental strength. This shows that he loves the fight and competition during a match, and he has come to have the same attitude when it comes to overcoming injuries. Every elite athlete is likely to suffer from an injury at some point in their career.

    Even if the athlete does everything to try and prevent injuries, they can still happen. When they do, the best way to deal with them is to follow the recovery process and have a strong mental attitude. Rafael Nadal has suffered from many injuries, but he allows himself to recover and has been mentally strong enough to come back again and again.

    Even with all of the injuries, he remains to be one of the best tennis players in the world. As mentioned previously in Chapter 1: The Body of an Elite Tennis Player , to become an elite athlete one must train their body. This even includes doing training at the cellular level, for slow or fast twitch fibres.

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